Chi-square test for normality python

scipy.stats.normaltest(a, axis=0, nan_policy='propagate')[source]#

Test whether a sample differs from a normal distribution.

This function tests the null hypothesis that a sample comes from a normal distribution. It is based on D’Agostino and Pearson’s [1], [2] test that combines skew and kurtosis to produce an omnibus test of normality.

Parametersaarray_like

The array containing the sample to be tested.

axisint or None, optional

Axis along which to compute test. Default is 0. If None, compute over the whole array a.

nan_policy{‘propagate’, ‘raise’, ‘omit’}, optional

Defines how to handle when input contains nan. The following options are available (default is ‘propagate’):

  • ‘propagate’: returns nan

  • ‘raise’: throws an error

  • ‘omit’: performs the calculations ignoring nan values

Returnsstatisticfloat or array

s^2 + k^2, where s is the z-score returned by skewtest and k is the z-score returned by kurtosistest.

pvaluefloat or array

A 2-sided chi squared probability for the hypothesis test.

References

1

D’Agostino, R. B. (1971), “An omnibus test of normality for moderate and large sample size”, Biometrika, 58, 341-348

2

D’Agostino, R. and Pearson, E. S. (1973), “Tests for departure from normality”, Biometrika, 60, 613-622

Examples

>>> from scipy import stats
>>> rng = np.random.default_rng()
>>> pts = 1000
>>> a = rng.normal(0, 1, size=pts)
>>> b = rng.normal(2, 1, size=pts)
>>> x = np.concatenate((a, b))
>>> k2, p = stats.normaltest(x)
>>> alpha = 1e-3
>>> print("p = {:g}".format(p))
p = 8.4713e-19
>>> if p < alpha:  # null hypothesis: x comes from a normal distribution
...     print("The null hypothesis can be rejected")
... else:
...     print("The null hypothesis cannot be rejected")
The null hypothesis can be rejected

scipy.stats.chisquare(f_obs, f_exp=None, ddof=0, axis=0)[source]#

Calculate a one-way chi-square test.

The chi-square test tests the null hypothesis that the categorical data has the given frequencies.

Parametersf_obsarray_like

Observed frequencies in each category.

f_exparray_like, optional

Expected frequencies in each category. By default the categories are assumed to be equally likely.

ddofint, optional

“Delta degrees of freedom”: adjustment to the degrees of freedom for the p-value. The p-value is computed using a chi-squared distribution with k - 1 - ddof degrees of freedom, where k is the number of observed frequencies. The default value of ddof is 0.

axisint or None, optional

The axis of the broadcast result of f_obs and f_exp along which to apply the test. If axis is None, all values in f_obs are treated as a single data set. Default is 0.

Returnschisqfloat or ndarray

The chi-squared test statistic. The value is a float if axis is None or f_obs and f_exp are 1-D.

pfloat or ndarray

The p-value of the test. The value is a float if ddof and the return value chisq are scalars.

Notes

This test is invalid when the observed or expected frequencies in each category are too small. A typical rule is that all of the observed and expected frequencies should be at least 5. According to [3], the total number of samples is recommended to be greater than 13, otherwise exact tests (such as Barnard’s Exact test) should be used because they do not overreject.

Also, the sum of the observed and expected frequencies must be the same for the test to be valid; chisquare raises an error if the sums do not agree within a relative tolerance of 1e-8.

The default degrees of freedom, k-1, are for the case when no parameters of the distribution are estimated. If p parameters are estimated by efficient maximum likelihood then the correct degrees of freedom are k-1-p. If the parameters are estimated in a different way, then the dof can be between k-1-p and k-1. However, it is also possible that the asymptotic distribution is not chi-square, in which case this test is not appropriate.

References

1

Lowry, Richard. “Concepts and Applications of Inferential Statistics”. Chapter 8. https://web.archive.org/web/20171022032306/http://vassarstats.net:80/textbook/ch8pt1.html

2

“Chi-squared test”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi-squared_test

3

Pearson, Karl. “On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling”, Philosophical Magazine. Series 5. 50 (1900), pp. 157-175.

Examples

When just f_obs is given, it is assumed that the expected frequencies are uniform and given by the mean of the observed frequencies.

>>> from scipy.stats import chisquare
>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12])
(2.0, 0.84914503608460956)

With f_exp the expected frequencies can be given.

>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], f_exp=[16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 8])
(3.5, 0.62338762774958223)

When f_obs is 2-D, by default the test is applied to each column.

>>> obs = np.array([[16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], [32, 24, 16, 28, 20, 24]]).T
>>> obs.shape
(6, 2)
>>> chisquare(obs)
(array([ 2.        ,  6.66666667]), array([ 0.84914504,  0.24663415]))

By setting axis=None, the test is applied to all data in the array, which is equivalent to applying the test to the flattened array.

>>> chisquare(obs, axis=None)
(23.31034482758621, 0.015975692534127565)
>>> chisquare(obs.ravel())
(23.31034482758621, 0.015975692534127565)

ddof is the change to make to the default degrees of freedom.

>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], ddof=1)
(2.0, 0.73575888234288467)

The calculation of the p-values is done by broadcasting the chi-squared statistic with ddof.

>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12], ddof=[0,1,2])
(2.0, array([ 0.84914504,  0.73575888,  0.5724067 ]))

f_obs and f_exp are also broadcast. In the following, f_obs has shape (6,) and f_exp has shape (2, 6), so the result of broadcasting f_obs and f_exp has shape (2, 6). To compute the desired chi-squared statistics, we use axis=1:

>>> chisquare([16, 18, 16, 14, 12, 12],
...           f_exp=[[16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 8], [8, 20, 20, 16, 12, 12]],
...           axis=1)
(array([ 3.5 ,  9.25]), array([ 0.62338763,  0.09949846]))

Does chi

The Chi-Square Test for Normality allows us to check whether or not a model or theory follows an approximately normal distribution. The Chi-Square Test for Normality is not as powerful as other more specific tests (like Lilliefors).

How do you check for normality in Python?

How to Test for Normality in Python (4 Methods).
(Visual Method) Create a histogram..
(Visual Method) Create a Q-Q plot..
(Formal Statistical Test) Perform a Shapiro-Wilk Test..
(Formal Statistical Test) Perform a Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test..
Log Transformation: Transform the values from x to log(x)..

How do you do a chi

To use the chi-square test, we can take the following steps:.
Define the null (H0) and alternative (H1) hypothesis..
Determine the value of alpha (𝞪) for according to the domain you are working. ... .
Check the data for Nans or other kind of errors..
Check the assumptions for the test..

How do you tell if a variable is normally distributed Python?

For quick and visual identification of a normal distribution, use a QQ plot if you have only one variable to look at and a Box Plot if you have many. Use a histogram if you need to present your results to a non-statistical public. As a statistical test to confirm your hypothesis, use the Shapiro Wilk test.

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