What is the \n in python?

In this short tutorial, we look at how to add a Python new line. We look at the Python new line character and how the other methods can be used.

Table of Contents - Python new line:

  • Python new line
  • Newline character in Python
  • Multi-line string
  • Closing thoughts - Python new line

Python new line:

In programming, it is a common practice to break lines and display content in a new line. This improves the readability of the output. Apart from that, you would frequently come across the new line character a lot while working with files.

Hence it is quite important that you understand how to add a new line and familiarise yourself with how the new line character works. This tutorial is aimed to do the same.

Newline character in Python:

In Python, the new line character “\n” is used to create a new line. When inserted in a string all the characters after the character are added to a new line. Essentially the occurrence of the “\n” indicates that the line ends here and the remaining characters would be displayed in a new line.

Code and Explanation:

str_1 = "Hire the top \n1% freelance developers"

print(str_1)
‘’’Output - Hire the top 
1% freelance developers’’’

As aforementioned, the character after the new line character is printed in a new line.
Different ways to implement this would include either adding it to string directly, or concatenating it before printing it. A common question that beginners have while learning how to apply a new line is - since we are adding it to a string - Why doesn’t Python print “\n” as it is? And how does it know that a new line must be added?

Well, the backslash (“\”) in the new line character is called an escape sequence. Escape sequences are used to add anything illegal to a string. This way Python understands that the following character is not a part of a string and executes it.

Multiline Strings:

Multiline strings are another easy way to print text in a new line. As the name suggests the string itself spans over multiple lines. These strings can be assigned by using either 3 double quotes or 3 single quotes. Python understands that the string is a multiline string and prints it as such.

Code and Explanation:

str_1 = """Hire the top 
1% freelance 
developers"""

print(str_1)

'''Output - Hire the top 
1% freelance 
developers'''

In the above example, the string is printed in the same way as the information was passed.

Closing thoughts - Python new line:

Although both methods can be used in Python to add new lines I would recommend using the first method as it is the most commonly accepted method. Also, given Python has an in-built character that facilitates this it is best to utilize it.

However, please feel free to explore and understand how the multiline method works.

There are two functions that give an object's string representation, repr() and str(). The former is designed to convert the object to as-code string, while the latter gives user-friendly string.

When you input the variable name in the command line, repr() is used, and \n character is shown as \n (as-code). When you use print, str() is used, and \n is shown as a new line (user-friendly).


By the way, str is a bad name for a variable, as it's the same as the built-in.

How can I indicate a newline in a string in Python, so that I can write multiple lines to a text file?

asked Jul 16, 2012 at 2:14

FabianCookFabianCook

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2

It depends on how correct you want to be. \n will usually do the job. If you really want to get it right, you look up the newline character in the os package. (It's actually called linesep.)

Note: when writing to files using the Python API, do not use the os.linesep. Just use \n; Python automatically translates that to the proper newline character for your platform.

What is the n in python?

Mateen Ulhaq

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answered Jul 16, 2012 at 2:16

What is the n in python?

Charlie MartinCharlie Martin

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3

The new line character is \n. It is used inside a string.

Example:

    print('First line \n Second line') 

where \n is the newline character.

This would yield the result:

First line
 Second line

If you use Python 2, you do not use the parentheses on the print function.

answered Sep 26, 2013 at 15:42

python_poweredpython_powered

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0

You can either write in the new lines separately or within a single string, which is easier.

Example 1

Input

line1 = "hello how are you"
line2 = "I am testing the new line escape sequence"
line3 = "this seems to work"

You can write the '\n' separately:

file.write(line1)
file.write("\n")
file.write(line2)
file.write("\n")
file.write(line3)
file.write("\n")

Output

hello how are you
I am testing the new line escape sequence
this seems to work

Example 2

Input

As others have pointed out in the previous answers, place the \n at the relevant points in your string:

line = "hello how are you\nI am testing the new line escape sequence\nthis seems to work"

file.write(line)

Output

hello how are you
I am testing the new line escape sequence
this seems to work

What is the n in python?

answered Jan 4, 2015 at 11:13

What is the n in python?

0

Platform-independent line breaker: Linux, Windows, and iOS

import os
keyword = 'physical'+ os.linesep + 'distancing'
print(keyword)

Output:

physical
distancing

What is the n in python?

answered Oct 26, 2019 at 18:55

What is the n in python?

0

Here is a more readable solution that will work correctly even if you aren't at top level indentation (e.g., in a function definition).

import textwrap
file.write(textwrap.dedent("""
    Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
    That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
    And then is heard no more: it is a tale
    Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
    Signifying nothing.
"""))

What is the n in python?

answered Feb 10, 2015 at 16:31

fredcallawayfredcallaway

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0

Simplest solution

If you only call print without any arguments, it will output a blank line.

print

You can pipe the output to a file like this (considering your example):

f = open('out.txt', 'w')
print 'First line' >> f
print >> f
print 'Second line' >> f
f.close()

Not only is it OS-agnostic (without even having to use the os package), it's also more readable than putting \n within strings.

Explanation

The print() function has an optional keyword argument for the end of the string, called end, which defaults to the OS's newline character, for eg. \n. So, when you're calling print('hello'), Python is actually printing 'hello' + '\n'. Which means that when you're calling just print without any arguments, it's actually printing '' + '\n', which results in a newline.

Alternative

Use multi-line strings.

s = """First line
    Second line
    Third line"""
f = open('out.txt', 'w')
print s >> f
f.close()

answered Jan 4, 2017 at 12:37

aalaapaalaap

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0

In Python you can just use the new-line character, i.e. \n

answered Jul 16, 2012 at 2:15

mhawkemhawke

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0

As mentioned in other answers: "The new line character is \n. It is used inside a string".

I found the most simple and readable way is to use the "format" function, using nl as the name for a new line, and break the string you want to print to the exact format you going to print it:

Python 2:

print("line1{nl}"
      "line2{nl}"
      "line3".format(nl="\n"))

Python 3:

nl = "\n"
print(f"line1{nl}"
      f"line2{nl}"
      f"line3")

That will output:

line1
line2
line3

This way it performs the task, and also gives high readability of the code :)

What is the n in python?

answered Nov 28, 2019 at 13:43

What is the n in python?

Rea HaasRea Haas

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The same way with '\n', though you'd probably not need the '\r'. Is there a reason you have it in your Java version? If you do need/want it, you can use it in the same way in Python too.

answered Jul 16, 2012 at 2:15

LevonLevon

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It is worth noting that when you inspect a string using the interactive Python shell or a Jupyter Notebook, the \n and other backslashed strings like \t are rendered literally:

>>> gotcha = 'Here is some random message...'
>>> gotcha += '\nAdditional content:\n\t{}'.format('Yet even more great stuff!')
>>> gotcha
'Here is some random message...\nAdditional content:\n\tYet even more great stuff!'

The newlines, tabs, and other special non-printed characters are rendered as whitespace only when printed, or written to a file:

>>> print('{}'.format(gotcha))
Here is some random message...
Additional content:
    Yet even more great stuff!

What is the n in python?

answered Jun 16, 2020 at 0:06

TrutaneTrutane

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Most escape characters in string literals from Java are also valid in Python, such as "\r" and "\n".

What is the n in python?

answered Jul 16, 2012 at 2:17

dolaamengdolaameng

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0

\n - simple newline character insertion works:

# Here's the test example - string with newline char:
In [36]: test_line = "Hi!!!\n testing first line.. \n testing second line.. \n and third line....."

Output:

In [37]: print(test_line)

Hi!!!
 testing first line..
 testing second line..
 and third line.....

What is the n in python?

answered Dec 18, 2017 at 21:46

SuryaSurya

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In Python 3, the language takes care of encoding newlines for you in the platform's native representation. That means \r\n on Windows, and just \n on grown-up systems.

Even on U*x systems, reading a file with Windows line endings in text mode returns correct results for text, i.e. any \r characters before the \n characters are silently dropped.

If you need total control over the bytes in the file, you can use binary mode. Then every byte corresponds exactly to one byte, and Python performs no translation.

>>> # Write a file with different line endings, using binary mode for full control
>>> with open('/tmp/demo.txt', 'wb') as wf:
...     wf.write(b'DOS line\r\n')
...     wf.write(b'U*x line\n')
...     wf.write(b'no line')
10
9
7

>>> # Read the file as text
>>> with open('/tmp/demo.txt', 'r') as text:
...     for line in text:
...         print(line, end='')
DOS line
U*x line
no line

>>> # Or more demonstrably
>>> with open('/tmp/demo.txt', 'r') as text:
...     for line in text:
...         print(repr(line))
'DOS line\n'
'U*x line\n'
'no line'

>>> # Back to bytes!
>>> with open('/tmp/demo.txt', 'rb') as binary:
...     for line in binary:
...         print(line)
b'DOS line\r\n'
b'U*x line\n'
b'no line'

>>> # Open in binary, but convert back to text
>>> with open('/tmp/demo.txt', 'rb') as binary:
...     for line in binary:
...         print(line.decode('utf-8'), end='')
DOS line
U*x line
no line

>>> # Or again in more detail, with repr()
>>> with open('/tmp/demo.txt', 'rb') as binary:
...     for line in binary:
...         print(repr(line.decode('utf-8')))
'DOS line\r\n'
'U*x line\n'
'no line'

answered Mar 23, 2021 at 5:45

What is the n in python?

tripleeetripleee

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Use:

"{}\n{}\n{}".format(
    "line1",
    "line2",
    "line3"
)

I personally prefer this format.

What is the n in python?

answered Nov 16, 2021 at 17:36

LynneLynne

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\n separates the lines of a string. In the following example, I keep writing the records in a loop. Each record is separated by \n.

f = open("jsonFile.txt", "w")

for row_index in range(2, sheet.nrows):

  mydict1 = {
    "PowerMeterId" : row_index + 1,
    "Service": "Electricity",
    "Building": "JTC FoodHub",
    "Floor": str(Floor),
    "Location": Location,
    "ReportType": "Electricity",
    "System": System,
    "SubSystem": "",
    "Incomer": "",
    "Category": "",
    "DisplayName": DisplayName,
    "Description": Description,
    "Tag": tag,
    "IsActive": 1,
    "DataProviderType": int(0),
    "DataTable": ""
  }
  mydict1.pop("_id", None)
  f.write(str(mydict1) + '\n')

f.close()

What is the n in python?

answered Oct 16, 2019 at 9:45

What is the n in python?

Various equivalent methods

Using print

print already appends a newline by default!

with open("out.txt", "w") as f:
    print("First", file=f)
    print("Second", file=f)

Equivalently:

with open("out.txt", "w") as f:
    print("First\nSecond", file=f)

To print without automatically adding a newline, use sep="" (since sep="\n" is the default):

with open("out.txt", "w") as f:
    print("First\nSecond\n", sep="", file=f)

Using f.write

For files opened in text mode:

with open("out.txt", "w") as f:
    f.write("First\nSecond\n")

For files opened in binary mode, the files will be written without automatic translation of \n to the platform-specific line terminator. To enforce the newline character for the current platform is used, use os.linesep instead of \n:

with open("out.txt", "wb") as f:
    f.write("First" + os.linesep)
    f.write("Second" + os.linesep)

Output file

Visually:

First
Second

On Linux, the newlines will be separated by \n:

First\nSecond\n

On Windows, the newlines will be separated by \r\n:

First\r\nSecond\r\n

To avoid automatic translation of \n to \r\n for files opened in text mode, open the file using open("out.txt", "w", newline="\n").

answered Aug 23 at 6:04

What is the n in python?

Mateen UlhaqMateen Ulhaq

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What does \r and \n mean in Python?

In Python strings, the backslash "\" is a special character, also called the "escape" character. It is used in representing certain whitespace characters: "\t" is a tab, "\n" is a newline, and "\r" is a carriage return.

What does the \n symbol in print () do?

The symbol \n is a special formatting character. It tells cout to print a newline character to the screen; it is pronounced “slash-n” or “new line.”

Is new line \n or n?

The newline character ( \n ) is called an escape sequence, and it forces the cursor to change its position to the beginning of the next line on the screen. This results in a new line.

What is the use of \n in Python Class 7?

The character '\n' (newline) is used as the end parameter. Each print command, as you can see, displays the output in a new line.

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